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Wednesday, 29 May 2013

Muhammad Khan: PM Processes for a Project

Muhammad Khan: PM Processes for a Project:

'via Blog this'


PM Processes for a Project

Rita's Process Chart

·         In order for a project to be successful, the project team must:

                                            i.      Select appropriate processes within the Project Management Process Groups that are required to meet the project objectives.
                                          ii.      Use a defined approach to adapt the product specifications and plans to meet project and product requirement
                                        iii.      Comply with requirements to meet stakeholder needs, wants and expectations
                                        iv.      Balance the competing needs of scope, time, cost, quality, resources and risk to produce a quality product


·         A process is a set of interrelated actions and activities that are performed to achieve a pre-specified set of products, results r services.

·         The project processes are performed by the project team, and generally fall into one of two categories:

                                            i.      Project management processes common to most projects most of the time are associated with each other by their performance for an integrated purpose
                                          ii.      Product-oriented processes specify and create the project’s product. Product oriented processes are typically defined by the project lifecycle and varying by application area.

·         Project management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact throughout the project

Project Management Processes: 

·         The specifics (aspects) for a project are defined as objectives that must be accomplished based on complexity, risk, size, time frame, project team’s experience, access to resources, amount of historical information, the organization’s project management maturity and industry or application area.

·         An underlying concept for interactions among the project management processes is the PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACT cycle, defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming

·         Initiation, Planning, Executing, Monitoring & Control and Closing have clear dependencies and are performed in the same sequence on each project, they are independent of application area or industry focus.

·         The monitoring and controlling process group not only monitors the work being done during a process group, but also monitors and controls the entire project effort; it also provides feedback to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan or to appropriately modify the project management plan.

·         The process groups are not project phase:

                                            i.      Initiating: Defines and authorize the project or a project phase.
                                          ii.      Planning: Defines and refines objectives, and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address.
                                        iii.      Executing:  Integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan for the project.
                                        iv.      Monitoring & Controlling: Regularly measure and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective actions can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives.
                                          v.      Closing: Formalizes acceptance of the product, service or result and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end.

1.0 Initiating Process Group:

·         The initiating process group consists of the processes that facilitate the formal authorization to start a new project or a project phase. Initiating processes are often done external to the project’s scope of control by the organization or by program or portfolio process

·         The framework of the project can be clarified by documenting the project selection processes. The relationship of the project to the organization’s strategic plan identifies the management responsibilities within the organization.

·         In multi-phase projects, initiating processes are carried out during subsequent phases to validate the assumptions and decisions made during the original Develop Project Charter and Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement processes.

·         If not already assigned, the project manager will be selected. Initial assumptions and constrains will also be documented. This information is captured in Project Charter and, when it is approved, the project becomes officially authorized; approval and funding are handled external to the project boundaries. 

·         Large or complex projects may be divided into phases. Reviewing the initiating process at the start of each phase helps to keep the project focused on the business need that the project was undertaken to address. The entry criteria are verified, including the availability of required resources. A decision is then made whether or not the project is ready to continue or whether the project should be delayed or discontinued.

·         Repeating the initiating processes at each subsequent phase also enables the project to be halted if the business need no longer exists or if the project is deemed unable to satisfy that business need.

·         Involving the customer and other stakeholders during initiation generally improves the probability of shared ownership, deliverable acceptance, and customer and other stakeholder satisfaction. Such acceptance is critical to project success.

·         The initiating process group starts a project or a project phase, and the output defines the project’s purpose, identifies objectives and authorizes the project manager to start the project.

·         High level planning may be done during the initiating processes. Such planning may include creating a high-level WBS, Order of Magnitude estimates, preliminary project scope statement and high level risk identification.

·         The initiating process group includes

1.1  Develop Project Charter
1.2  Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement

Develop Project Charter 

·         Develop Project Charter is primarily concerned with authorizing the project or, in a multi-phase project, a project phase. Projects are chartered and authorized external to the project by the organization, a program or portfolio management body. In multi-phase projects, this process is used to validate or refine the decisions made during the previous Develop Project Charter process. 

Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement 

·         This is the process necessary for producing a preliminary high-level definition of the project using the Project Charter with other inputs to the initiating process.

·         This process addresses and documents the project and deliverable requirements, product requirements, boundaries of the project, methods of acceptance and high-level scope control. In multi-phase projects, this process validates or refines the project scope for each phase.

2.0 Planning Process Group

·         The planning processes develop the project management plan. These processes also identify, define and mature the project scope, project cost and schedule the project activities that occur within the project. As new project information is discovered, additional dependencies, requirements, risks, opportunities, assumptions and constraints will be identified and resolved.

·         The project management plan, developed as an output of the Planning Process Group, will have an emphasis on exploring all aspects of the scope, technology, risks and costs. Updates arising from approved changes during project execution may significantly impact parts of the project management plan. This progressive detailing of the project management plan is often called “rolling wave planning”, indicating that planning is an iterative and ongoing process.

·         While planning the project, the project team should involve all appropriate stakeholders, depending upon their influence on the project and its outcomes. The project team should use stakeholders in project planning since the stakeholders have skills and knowledge that can be leveraged (influenced) in developing the project management plan and any subsidiary plans.

·         One might work with discretionary dependencies in order to decrease some risk and thereby change the network diagram. The important thing to remember is that planning should lead to a realistic, bought-into and approved project management plan.

·         Planning is the only project management process group that has a specific order of activities. However, you should also know that a release resource is the last activity in the closing process group.

·         Corrective actions (not preventive actions) and changes can be recommended or requested in both executing and monitoring and controlling process groups. 

·         The processes of quality assurance, information distribution, select sellers in project executing, and scope, schedule, quality and cost control in monitoring and controlling result in requested changes. The changes are then evaluated and approved or rejected as part of Integrated Change Control.

·         The project management plan is compiled by the project manager with inputs from stakeholders, historical records from previous projects, company policies, magazine articles about projects and other such information may also be utilized in planning the project.

·         The Planning Process Group includes:

1.1          Develop Project Management Plan
1.2          Scope Planning
1.3          Scope Definition
1.4          Create WBS
1.5          Activity Definition
1.6          Activity Sequencing
1.7          Activity Resource Estimating
1.8          Activity Duration Estimating
1.9          Schedule Development
1.10                Cost Estimating
1.11                Cost budgeting
1.12                Quality Planning
1.13                Human Resource Planning
1.14                Communication Planning
1.15                Risk Management Planning
1.16                Risk Identification
1.17                Qualitative Risk Analysis
1.18                Quantitative Risk Analysis
1.19                Risk Response Planning
1.20                Plan Purchase and Acquisition
1.21                Plan Contracting

3.0 Executing Process Group

·         The Executing Process Group consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the Project Management Plan to accomplish the project’s requirements. 

·         This process Group involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project in accordance with the Project Management Plan. This Process Group also addresses the scope defined in the project scope statement and implements approved changes.

·         Normal execution variances will cause some re-planning. These variances can include activity durations, resource productivity and availability and unanticipated risks. Such variances may or may not affect the project management plan, but can require analysis. The results of the analysis can trigger a change request that, if approved, would modify the project management plan and possibly require establishing a new baseline.

·         The vast majority of project’s budget will be expended in performing the Executing Process Group processes.

·         The Executing Process Group includes:

3.1   Direct and Manager Project Execution
3.2   Perform Quality Assurance
3.3   Acquire Project Team
3.4   Develop Project Team
3.5   Information Distribution
3.6   Request Seller Responses
3.7   Select Sellers

4.0 Monitoring and Controlling Process Group

·         The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project.

·         The key benefit of this Process Group is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan and the project performance baseline. The Monitoring and Controlling Process Group also includes controlling changes and recommending preventive actions in anticipation of possible problems.  

·         This process group also influences the factors that could circumvent integrated change control so only approved changes are implemented.

·         The continuous monitoring provides the project team insight into the health of the project and highlights any areas that require additional attention. This process group not only monitors and controls the work being done within a process group, but also monitors and controls the entire project effort.

·         When variances jeopardize the project objectives, appropriate project management processes within the Planning Process Group are revisited as part of the modified plan-do-check-act cycle. This review can result in recommended updates to the project management plan.

·         Monitoring and Controlling Process Group includes:

4.1  Monitor and Control Project Work
This is the process necessary for collecting, measuring and disseminating performance information and assessing measurements and trends to effect process improvements. This process includes risk monitoring to ensure that risks are identified early, their status is reported and appropriate risk plans are being executed. Monitoring includes status reporting, progress measurement and forecasting. Performance reports provide information on project’s performance with regard to scope, schedule, cost, resources, quality and risk.
4.2  Integrated Change Control
This is the process necessary for controlling factors that create changes to make sure those changes are beneficial, determining whether a change has occurred, and managing the approved changes, including when they occur. This process is performed throughout the project, from project initiation through project closure.
4.3   Scope Verification
4.4   Scope Control
4.5   Schedule Control
4.6   Cost Control
4.7   Perform Quality Control
This is the process necessary for monitoring specific project results to determine whether they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
4.8   Manage Project Team
4.9   Performance Reporting
4.10                Manage Stakeholders
4.11                Risk Monitoring and Control
This is the process necessary for tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, executing risk response plans, and evaluating their effectiveness throughout the project life cycle
4.12                Contract Administration
This is the process necessary for managing the contract and relationship between the buyer and seller, reviewing and documenting how a seller is performing or has performed and, when appropriate, managing the contractual relationship with the outside buyer of the project.

5.0 Closing Process Group

·         The Closing Process Group includes the processes used to formally terminate all activities of a project or a project phase, handoff the completed product to others (operations) or close a cancelled project. This process group, when completed, verifies that the defined processes are completed within all process groups to close the project or a project phase, as appropriate, and formally establishes that the project or project phase is finished.

·         During project closing, the team compiles the final version of the lessons learned and makes them available to other projects and the PMO. In addition, a concerted effort must be made to index and put all files, letters, correspondence and other records of the project into an organized archive which is stored for use on future projects.

·         The Closing Process Group includes:

1.1  Close Project
This is the process necessary to finalize all activities across all of the Process Groups to formally close the project or project phase.

1.2  Contract Closure 
This is the process necessary for completing and settling each contract, including the resolution of any open items, and closing each contract applicable to the project or a project phase. 

Process Groups Interactions: 

·         Just as not all of the processes will be needed on all projects, not all of the interactions will apply to all projects or project phases, for example

1.      Projects that are dependant upon unique resources can define roles and responsibilities prior to scope definition, since what can be done is dependant on who is available.

2.      Some process inputs are predefined as constraints. For example, management can specify a target completion date rather than allowing that date to be determined by the planning process. An imposed completion date will often require scheduling backward from that date and can increase project risk, add cost and compromise quality, or, in extreme cases, require a significant change in scope.



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